2019 Federal Income Tax Brackets and Standard Deduction (UPDATED)

The numbers are in. Here’s what you need to know before you file taxes in 2020.

2019 tax brackets and standard deduction

You might think it’s too early to consider 2019 tax brackets. After all, you won’t file your 2019 taxes for months yet. Not until 2020! But understanding your tax bracket can help you make all sorts of helpful financial decisions, especially if you’re right on the line between two tax brackets. In that case, finding a way to bring your taxable income down even a little can save you a big chunk of change.

The numbers below are for this year, so they’re what you’ll see or use when you file your taxes in 2020. Here’s what you can expect from your 2019 deductions and tax rates.

Deal of the Day: Credit Karma Tax offers 100% free Federal and State tax filing with a Maximum Refund Guarantee and Audit Defense. Never pay a penny to file your income taxes. Read the Full Review Here

2019 Standard Deduction

The standard deduction jumped by a lot for the 2018 tax year. But in 2019, it’ll only be adjusted for inflation. So the deductions are as follows:

  • Married Filing Jointly/Surviving Spouse: $24,400
  • Heads of Households: $18,350
  • Single/Married Filing Separately: $12,200

How Tax Brackets Work

A tax bracket is simply a set of income brackets that are to be taxed at a specified rate. A component of progressive income tax systems, tax brackets increase progressively with the increase in your income. The idea is to increase the tax burden on the higher-income groups while making it affordable for the lower-income groups to pay their taxes.

Currently, there are seven federal income tax brackets in the U.S ranging from 10% to 37%. These rates apply to the taxable income, which is your gross income after allowable itemized deductions. Following are the seven tax rates that apply to seven different income brackets:

Income Bracket NumberTax Rate

The above table provides the different tax rates applicable to the seven different income groups in the U.S. At this point, you would want to know what tax percent applies to you. Well, you can easily find this out by referring to the following table that breaks down the tax brackets.

Tax RateTaxable Income (Single Filer)Taxable Income (Married, Filing Jointly)
10%$0 to $9,700$0 to $19,400
12%$9,701 to $39,475$19,401 to $78,950
22%$39,476 to $84,200$78,951 to $168,400
24%$84,201 to $160,725$168,401 to $321,450
32%$160,726 to $204,100$321,451 to $408,200
35%$204,101 to $510,300$408,201 to $612,350
37%$510,301 or more$612,351 or more

So, you now know the income bracket you fall into for taxation purposes. But how does the tax bracket work exactly?

Let’s suppose, you’re a single filer in the 10% tax bracket. Working out your tax amount will be extremely easy for you now. Simply multiply your income by the 10% rate and you will get the payable tax amount. For example, if your taxable income is $8,000, you will have to pay $800 as tax. It’s that simple.

However, things get a little trickier as you move up the table and towards a higher income bracket. Say, you’re a single file and fall in the 22% tax bracket. Now, this does not mean that you will have to pay 22% of your taxable income as tax. Instead, you will pay 10% on the first $9,525 of your income, 12% on the amount between $9,526 and $38,700, and 22% on the amount between $38,701 to $82,500.

How to Use the Federal Income Tax Table

As mentioned earlier, the federal income tax bracket follows a progressive income tax system. What does this mean? It means that as your taxable income increases, the tax rate applicable to you will also increase. Depending on the filing status (single-filer or married, filing jointly), different tax rates are applied on income in different brackets or ranges.

For example, a 37% tax rate is currently applied to single filers with a taxable income of over $500,000 and joint filers with a taxable income of $600,000. However, only the income in a specific tax bracket is subjected to the tax rate. This means that single filers earning over $500,000 will have to pay a 24% tax on only that amount of income which exceeds $500,000. So, if a person’s income is $525,000, then a 37% tax rate will be applied to only $25,000 of the income.

There is a significant advantage for married taxpayers filing jointly as all tax brackets for them are almost twice the size of those for singles; the only exception being the highest tax bracket. This means that married couples filing jointly pay far less tax than they would have filed as a single person. In the next section is a list of tables breaking down the tax brackets for different filers.

2019 Tax Rates

The tax rates for each year are published in table form. The top tax rate is 37%, and the lowest is 10%. These income brackets are also changed with inflation each year. Check out this article if you want to know more about how the marginal tax rate system works. For income you earn in 2019, your tax rate will be as follows, depending on which category you’re in.

Table 1. Married Filing Jointly and Surviving Spouses

Taxable IncomeTaxes
Up to $19,40010% of taxable income
Between $19,400 and $78,950$1,940 plus 12% of income over $19,400
Between $78,950 and $168,400$9,086 plus 22% of income over $78,950
Between $168,400 and $321,450$28,765 plus 24% of income over $168,400
Between $321,450 and $408,200$65,497 plus 32% of income over $321,450
Between $408,200 and $612,350$93,257 plus 35% of income over $408,200
More than $612,350$164,706 plus 37% of income over $612,350

Table 2. Heads of Households

Taxable IncomeTaxes
Up to $13,60010% of taxable income
Between $13,850 and $52,850$1,385 plus 12% of income over $13,850
Between $52,850 and $84,200$6,065 plus 22% of income over $52,850
Over $84,200 and $160,700$12,742 plus 24% of income over $84,299
Over $160,700 and $204,100$31,102 plus 32% of income over $160,700
Over $204,100 and $510,300$44,990 plus 35% of income over $204,100
Over $510,300$152,160 plus 37% of income over $510,300

Table 3. Single Filers

Taxable IncomeTaxes
Up to $9,70010% of taxable income
Between $9,700 and $39,475$970 plus 12% of income over $9,700
Between $39,475 and $84,200$4,543 plus 22% of income over $39,475
Between $84,200 and $160,725$14,382 plus 24% of income over $84,200
Between $160,725 and $204,100$32,748 plus 32% of income over $160,725
Between $204,100 and $510,300$46, 628 plus 35% of income over $204,100
Over $510,300$13,798 plus 37% of income over $510,300

Table 4. Married Filing Separately

Taxable IncomeTaxes
Up to $9,70010% of taxable income
Between $9,700 and $39,475$970 plus 12% of income over $9,700
Between $39,475 and $84,200$4,543 plus 22% of income over $39,475
Between $84,200 and $160,725$14,382 plus 24% of income over $84,200
Between $160, 725 and $204,100$32,748 plus 32% of income over $160,725
Between $204,100 and $306,175$46,628 plus 35% of income over $204,100
Over $306,175$82,354 plus 37% of income over $306,175

Remember that these numbers are for the 2019 tax year so you’ll use them when filing taxes in 2020. 

Calculating Your 2019 Federal Income Tax

You can easily work out your federal income tax based on your filing status by using the above tables as a reference point. However, just to give you an idea of how the math for this works, the following are some examples of how federal income tax are calculated.

Say, you’re a single filer with a taxable income of $50,000. Now, the tax rate that will apply to you is 22%. Following is how the tax rate will be applied to you:

$9,700 x 10% = $970.00

$28,775 x 12% = $3,573

$10,525 x 22% = $2,315

Total tax = $6,858

Now, suppose your friend, Amanda, has a taxable income of $100,000. A 24% tax rate would apply to her. Following is how her tax amount will be calculated:

$9,700 x 10%= $970.00

$28,775 x 12%= $3,573

$44,724 x 22%= $9,840

$15,800 x 24%= $3,792

Total Tax = $18,175

If the two of you were to get married and then file jointly, then following is how your tax will be calculated:

$19,400 x 10% = $1,940

$59,550 x 12% = $7,146

$71,050 x 22% = $15,631

Total Tax = $24,717

If you have been able to follow and retain the information given in this post, you can confidently say that you know how income tax brackets work, how to use the federal income tax bracket, and how to calculate your federal income tax.

Next Steps

Keep an eye on your income for the year. If it looks like you’ll be close to the line on one of these tax brackets, find some possible ways to reduce your taxable income. This could include putting more money into a tax-advantaged retirement account or a health-savings account. Or you could find ways to increase your personal deductions. Pushing your income to the next tax bracket down can really make a difference when it’s time to file!

Best Tax Software – Compare Your Options



Read Full Review
H&R Block


Read Full Review


Read Full Review
CostMore expensiveMore expensiveBudget option
User ExperienceIntuitive, easy-to-use platform; accessible by desktop and mobile with easeEasy-to-use online platform; ability to meet with a live person to go over taxesSomewhat bare-bones online platform
Customer ServiceCan get FAQ or live help on the fly
FAQs, live support, or in-person supportFAQs, email, and online ticketing system

File Your Taxes FOR FREE with Credit Karma Tax

If you’re filing your taxes with anyone who is charging you money, stop right now.  Credit Karma Tax is offering free federal AND free state filing from start to finish.  And if you have a slightly more complicated tax situation; no problem; IT’S STILL FREE.

Unlike other services that advertise free filing and then charge you for itemizing deductions; Credit Karma Tax is always free.

Credit Karma Tax offers a maximum refund guarantee as well as free Audit Defense.  In both situations, Credit Karma Tax is prepared to reimburse you for the amount you’re out because of their mistake.

File your Federal AND State taxes for FREE with Credit Karma Tax

Invest Your Tax Refund

CIT Bank is offering a 1.85% APY on their Savings Builder Account.  The minimum to open the account is just $100 and there are no maintenance fees. Take your tax refund and deposit it here to earn even more!

And for a limited time, the CIT Savings Builder is offering up to a $300 cash bonus on new accounts!

Topics: Taxes

96 Responses to “2019 Federal Income Tax Brackets and Standard Deduction (UPDATED)”

  1. Randall Klein EA

    ***NOTE THE ABOVE TABLE 1 for MFJ has an ERROR.
    The LAST 3 LINES of TABLE 1 for MFJ filers shows the “xx% above” amounts are wrong

    As shown:
    Between $321,450 and $408,200 $65,497 plus 32% of income over $408,200
    Between $408,200 and $612,350 $93,257 plus 35% of income over $612,350
    More than $612,350 $164,706 plus 37% of income over $612,350 (correct as is)

    This SHOULD BE:
    Between $321,450 and $408,200 $65,497 plus 32% of income over $321,450
    Between $408,200 and $612,350 $93,257 plus 35% of income over $408,200
    More than $612,350 $164,706 plus 37% of income over $612,350

  2. Lee Anne Oliveira

    Hi I am married filing separately over 65 and my income is 43,000 do you take the deduction of $12,000 and $1300 then will that be what I have to pay taxes on which is $29,700? so what would my taxes be?

      • John B.

        Need to update those numbers for 2019 and provide more detail. For 2019, a single person with Modified Adjusted Gross Income above $137,000 does not qualify to make any contributions to an IRA; for married couples filing jointly, the MAGI limit is $203,000 for 2019…… For 2019, the most that a qualifying individual under age 50 can contribute to his Traditional IRA (and deduct it from income) is SIX thousand dollars. Again for 2019, a qualifying individual aged 50 to 70 and a half can contribute (and deduct from income) up to SEVEN thousand dollars to a Traditional IRA. …………………………… After age 70.5, nobody is allowed to contribute to an IRA….. moreover, at any age, a person who is covered by a retirement plan at work, such as a 401(k) or 403(b), is NOT eligible to make any deductible contributions to an IRA no matter what his MAGI is.

  3. With the new 2017 tax rate, can you clear up how it will work. I collect 24,828 in NJ pension and 16,332 I. SS survivor benefit. What is my tax rate for federal deductions? Also, what will I owe? Thank you

  4. Carol Turcotte

    I am a bit confused as to just what my tax liability will be in 2018. I am single age 75 and want to know what my standard deduction will be. My husband passed away in 2015 and because I receive CSRS retirement was not eligible for any of his Social Security so I get a wapping $143.00 per month SS for my credible service. Do I need to claim my SS.

    • About $1159. which is just over 10% of 50% of social security. Everything else should be under all of the exemptions, but because your pension income plus half of SS is more than 34K then 50% of your SS is taxable at normal income rates. Your pension income uses up the personal exemption so half of your SS income, which comes to be $11,250, is your taxable income. so referring to the table above the first $9520 is taxed at 10% = $952 , the next $1725 is taxed at 12% = 207

      952+207=$1159 in taxes.

      • I think there is a mistake on amt of their SS $ that is taxable and their total tax owed. U MUST complete th SS Benefits worksheet to figure amt of ur SS that is taxable ea yr, but only after u do ur form 1040 thru line 4. Follow th 1040 line instructions.. . SS instrcts start on pg 32. Per th SS Benefit worksheet in th Form 1040 Booklet, – p33, u add 1/2 ur SS to all ur other income – wrksht steps 1–5. Follow step 3 closely. For people above, 1/2 SS ($11,250) + all step 3 income ($24,000) . Marrieds subtract $32,000 from that $35,250 income total (wksht step 9). The difference – $3,250 – is basically 1/2’d again to $1,625 in step 13 & for them becomes amt on line 16 which is th amt of their SS that is taxable. It goes on their 1040, line 5b & adds to their other income. Then subtract their standard dedctn on line 8. If the people in above qstn only have $24,000 all other income, then standard dedctn ($26,600) is more than & makes them have no taxable income on form 1040 – line 10. Then rest of form 1040 has to be done to see if any additional tax owed.. Sorry this was so lengthy

  5. I’m seeing different amounts fro standard deduction from different sites. One IRS site listed the single standard deduction at 6,600 and others say $12,000. I’m taking money from my 401k so the wrong info could put me in a higher tax rate bracket. Which is right? And how can I be sure?

    • bruce ackerman

      Based on the new 2018 new tax law you would get 12000 as the standard deduction but that includes the personal exemption you were getting in 2017. However 12000 exceeds the 2 rates you were getting in 2017!

  6. I just got married in Aug 2018. I am currently on SS Disability with my husband our combined income it under $42,000. We are also supporting a 34 yr old daughter who is unable to work but we do not believe would qualify for disability. Will we have to pay much in taxes if we file married filing jointly? Taxes are being taken out of my husband’s paychecks biweekly currently. He is 61.

  7. Sheila Childers

    single, age 66.. do I still file taxes if my only income is Social S? that gross total is less than 17,000. for the year,.. I still deduct my insurance cost & 12,000. standard + over 65 , another 1,300.00..balance would be lower than 4,000. Question is what is the lowest amount a single person would have to file federal taxes??

    • Assuming your only income is SS, none of your income is taxable. As you already have Medicare, you are also exempt from filing tax return requirement. It’s hard to say the lowest amount as each person’s (couple’s) situation is different. I would still keep all financial record (document) in case you get an inquiry letter from IRS in the future. You may, if you’ve just started receiving your SS benefit this year at your full retirement age.


    I am a retiree. I will have two pensions, social security, and VA disability payments for 2018. What will be taxable? I will have a total of 40K in income.

  9. James B Xiong

    I don’t by what you said reduce alot….ALOT!. Currently a single get some standard 6300 plus 4000 personal exemption equal to over 10000. Now single get 12000 standard but lost to 4000 personal exemption to me it only slightly over 1000 more. But let said a single mom with four children, currently she can file a head of houseshole and get 9000 plus 4000×5 = 20000 of personal exemption she get a total of almost 30000 deductable, but now she lost that 20000 and she only get 18000 to file as head of the househole. 2000 child credit do nothing for her if her chile are 17-18-19 and 20. Now she got no credit 3 of her child in college what is the government talking about support education.???????? After do the calculation she jump the brigde her kids end up on the street instead of college…

    • Mantin

      You missed the increased child tax credit part, each child can claim $2000 instead of $1000 of tax credit which is more than make up for the loss of personal exemption

    • Frank Tang

      Nope. It’s one or the other. You can either take the $24k in standard deduction, or whatever your Schedule A comes up with on Itemized Deductions. Keep in mind that State/Local/Property Tax deduction is capped at $10k. So you’ll need to come up with at least $14k of other deductions to bother with Itemizing.

  10. Erin Johnson

    My daughter receives 100% financial aid from her college, approx. $70k. She also has a local merit scholarship which is paid to the college and is refunded to her, $6k. Her tuition is $52k. Books ~ $2k

    This year, 2017 return for 2016, we were able to claim her as a dependent, and due to how things fell on the 1098-T, we got the AOTC. (Like winning the lottery. We never get anything.)

    The issue is, I keep reading room and board part of financial aid is taxable, and all the money above her ~ $54k in tuition and books. $76k – $54k = $22k.

    Question 1) How do we find out if the financial aid and the other merit scholarship are even taxable? I called a CPA and they said it’s “situational” and they’d need to see the 1098-T, etc. I’d like to figure this out for myself because that CPA wants $425.

    Question 2) Since we can’t claim dependents in 2018, can she file Single, taking her $12k deduction, and pay the ~ 10% tax on the other $10k, assuming it is ALL taxable? Since this isn’t technically earned, is it still earned income rates? CPA said yes, FWIW.

    Thank you. This has been a nightmare.

  11. Delia Lamont

    What about Truck Drivers. My husband is over the road driver and gone from home 80%, right now we claim a per diem for every night he is gone, with the new tax law we will not be able to even claim half of the per diem, not including our interest on house because we will max out. Correct?

  12. So question on this. We are going to be at the border of 165,000. In order to get the 28,179 for next year taxes, would it better to not put anything into retirement so we get the better tax break? I will have 3-4 total in my household for this year, no child dependents. We do itemize a bit here.

  13. I qualify for head of household and am over 65. My standard deduction is $19,600. I have one child tax credit of $2,000. My questions are: Is home mortgage interest still deductible. Are property taxes still deductible? Is state income still deductible, in addition to the $19.,600?

  14. What will the 2018 standard deduction be for someone who can be claimed as a dependent on another’s tax return? I used to be $1050, or $350 above earned income. Will it go to $12,000 as well?

    • Debbie Fiske

      No, if you itemize he must also itemize, even if he has nothing to itemize, which basically means he looses the deduction or it is limited to what ever he can claim for itemize deductions. You are more than likely better off to file jointly!

  15. S. Gurbuz

    Being on a fixed income has no baring on who pays income tax and who does not. You could be on a fixed income and earn $50000.00 or $10000.00, this term used to mean that the income you receive will never go higher, that was back in the days when Government Pensions were not adjusted to the cost of living. Now all Government Pensions be it Canada Pension Plan or Old Age Security or the Garanteed Income Supplement are adjusted in January of each year based on the rise of the Cost of Living.

    • Kent Moyer

      Yes and no. Your standard deduction is going up to $18,000, but not until you file your 2018 taxes in early 2019. Don’t go spending that extra refund this month! 🙂

  16. You are correct a lot of middle-class people are going to o be screwed without the exemptions and the standard deduction doesn’t change much if they were already i
    tempting anywhere near the new 24 Grand amount

  17. Kevin Schlatter

    This new tax law really hurts families with children that could itemize deductions and receive the Exemption benefit in 2017. We have 3 children. In 2017, I could itemize + get 5 * $4050 in exemptions. This got my Taxable Income down near $90K. With the new law and removal of the exemptions I can only get my Taxable 2018 income forecast down to $120K. The doubling of the child tax credit makes it a basic wash at the Federal level, but now I have an additional $30K that I have to pay Colorado income tax at 4.63%. A $1400 tax INCREASE. Awful. Why didn’t they just change the tax brackets and leave all the itemization/exemption rules in place?

      • Kevin Schlatter

        Hi Rob. Yes. It is only $24K In 2017 I itemized $26K then also got the $20250 for exemptions to get my taxable income down. Now in 2018 I lose the exemptions vastly increasing my taxable income. Am I missing something? Thanks.

          • Kevin Schlatter

            Hi Anthony, Yes. That child tax credit boost is good, but only helps at the Federal level washing out the lost Exemption benefit for a family my size. At the State level, since my taxable income has increased significantly, I am anticipating a $1400 tax INCREASE. Am I correct in my arithmetic? Am I missing something? Is there a CPA monitoring this board that can chime in? Were our lawmakers not aware of this state impact? Why didn’t they just change the tax brackets and leave all the itemization/exemption rules in place? Thanks.

          • Kent Moyer

            Your math appears correct. Unfortunately only six states use taxable income as their basis for state income tax calculations. The majority use AGI which would be unaffected by the exemption/deduction rework, so even if your legislators were aware they most likely didn’t have a large enough voice to overturn the concessions made to include the expanded child tax credit.

          • Kevin, your situation is nearly identical to mine. I’m glad I stumbled on your post. My question for you is doesn’t this hurt at the Federal level as well? For anyone who itemizes >$24K already, you’re losing the exemptions with only the slight increase in the Child Tax credit to counter it. If you were getting $20K in exemptions + $2K or for the child tax credit after the phaseout, you’re now only getting $6K for the child tax credit. That’s a straight credit so it’s not apples to apples, but isn’t that significantly increasing your tax burden at the Federal level also?

          • From my POV it is even worse – if your 2 children are 18 years old, you loose the exemption you were getting with full-time students and you do NOT get child tax credit at all … So if you were itemizing more than 24k you loose a the full $16,200 deduction (which would have otherwise gone up in 2018). That is a big increase in tax due … definitely bad for families with college students (already costing me a ton), please tell me I’m missing something?

    • Brad Railsback

      I am not sure how the new tax law changed this. In the past you could deduct repairs in the year the costs were incurred. If it was matainance you had to spread it out over several years, with time period depending on what it was you did. The difference between repairs and maintenance is that repairs are something you did because of damage and maintenance is due to something wearing out. If you had to replace carpeting because of a flood you can write it all off at once. If you replaced it because it wore out the cost will be depreciated over several years.

Leave a Reply