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Whether to pay off a mortgage early is an important decision. For some, it’s a question of whether to allocate some extra cash each month to the mortgage. For others, it’s a question of whether to pay off the home loan all at once. The lump sum approach often becomes an option from an inheritance or life insurance proceeds.

The question presents two key challenges. First, for most the mortgage is just one of many financial goals. In some cases prioritizing these goals is easy. One should tackle a credit card bill charging 20% interest before a fixed rate mortgage at 4%. In other cases, however, prioritizing competing goals can be more challenging. For example, do you save for a child’s education before putting any extra money on the mortgage?

Second, a mortgage can present a number of emotional issues. We feel secure at the thought of owning our home. Ironically, paying off a mortgage can actually make us less financially secure if doing so requires us to use up all of our available cash.

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To sort through these issues, this article and podcast look at when we should and when we should not pay off our mortgage early.

The analysis makes an important assumption. Specifically, this article assumes that we are dealing with a low, fixed rate mortgage. Adjustable and high rate mortgages should generally be refinanced to low fixed rate mortgages if at all possible unless one is planning to move soon.

Why You Should Not Pay Off Your Mortgage Early

1. You still have other debt

In almost every case, the mortgage should be the last debt you pay off. If you still have other debt, including second mortgages and home equity lines of credit, these should be tackled first. Typical debts include the following:

  • Car Loans: Most car loans come with interest rates higher than mortgages at current rates. Interest on a car loan is also not tax deductible.
  • School Loans: Particularly for those who have refinanced their school loans or taken advantage of certain repayment plans, there may be no advantage to paying off the loan early. But even with refinanced loans, rates are typically higher than a mortgage and the term of the loan shorter. As a result, it’s almost always better to pay off school loans before turning to the mortgage.
  • Home Equity Lines of Credit: While second mortgages may be tax deductible, the interest rates are higher than the mortgage.
  • Credit Card Debt: It should go without saying that paying off credit card debt is a high priority. Even if you take advantage of 0% balance transfer offers, these introductory rates only last about 18 months.

As noted above, many debts can carry 0% interest, at least for a time. In almost all cases, however, these 0% deals are either temporary or apply to relatively short term loans. As a result, paying these loans off is almost always a higher priority than the mortgage.

2. You don’t have a 12-month emergency fund

As a rule, one should have at least enough money in taxable accounts to cover expenses for a year before applying extra money to the mortgage. While you are paying off debt and working to maximize retirement accounts, a 12-month emergency fund is likely too rich. But when these goals are met and the decision is to pay off the mortgage early, 12 months is a sound goal.

Liquidity should always be an important consideration. Paying off the mortgage early requires a lot of cash. While it may be a reasonable plan, one shouldn’t pay off the mortgage in a way that eats up all of your cash.

3. You aren’t saving 20% of gross income (at least)

We shouldn’t divert money to the mortgage until we are saving a significant portion of our income. At an absolute minimum, we should be saving 20% of our gross income before applying extra cash to the mortgage. These savings will likely include both retirement savings to 401k and IRA accounts, as well as savings to taxable accounts.

4. You are still saving for big purchases

It’s not enough to pay off debt and save before tackling the mortgage. It’s also important to make sure you have future cash needs addressed. Generally, you should plan to cover significant purchases for at least the next five years, and 10 years would be preferable. Typical big purchases might include the following:

  • Child’s Education (529 Plan)
  • Car Purchase
  • Home Remodeling
  • Wedding
  • Vacations

There’s no point in paying off the mortgage only to go into more debt for a large purchase.

5.  You are investing the extra cash in a smart way

Once we’ve paid off all debt, have a solid emergency fund, are saving at least 20% of our income, and have our cash needs met for five to 10 years, using the extra cash to pay toward the mortgage is a reasonable choice. Nevertheless, it’s here where a big debate arises–is it better to pay off the mortgage or invest?

Dave Ramsey argues we should pay off our mortgage. It’s Baby Step #6 on his path to financial freedom. In contrast, Ric Edelman argues that we should never pay off our mortgage.  Why? Among other reasons, Edelman argues that “[m]ortgages, in fact, are the cheapest money you will ever be able to borrow. (Oh, sure, you can get a credit card that offers 0% interest for six months, but try to borrow a couple hundred thousand for 30 years that way.)”

Both views have merit. However, those who invest in a well diversified, equity oriented, low-cost portfolio of index funds will surely outperform the rate on a typical mortgage over the long term. There are some key assumptions here, however.

First, we assume you have a low, fixed rate mortgage. Second, we are assuming you are investing for the long term–at least 10 years. Third, we assume that your investments are well diversified. And finally, we assume that you are keeping investment costs to a bare minimum. Paying a financial advisor 2% to put your money in expensive mutual funds defeats the goal–to outperform the rate on your mortgage.

Furthermore, compare mortgage rates to investment returns is tricky business. As a starting point, you’ll want to factor in the tax savings on a mortgage if you itemize your deductions. For example, we had a 30-year fixed rate mortgage at 4.875%. Assuming a top tax bracket of 28%, our effective interest rate after taxes is about 3.5% (.04875 x (1-.28)).

The question now, however, is what we compare that interest with. If we compare it to current savings account rates, paying off the mortgage is a clear winner. Right now, the best rate on a savings account is just over 1%, and that’s before taxes. The problem with this comparison, however, is that interest rates on savings accounts can, and likely will, rise. In contrast, the interest rate on my mortgage was fixed for 30-years. So I could end up throwing a lot of money at the mortgage now, only to see savings account rates hit 5% or more over the next five years.

Some like to compare mortgage rates to the historical returns of the stock market. If you can assume a long-term return of six to eight percent from the stock market, it pays to invest rather than pay off a mortgage at a much lower rate. This approach has some validity, but you do need to recognize that you are comparing two options with very different risk profiles. Paying off a mortgage early has zero investment risk, whereas there is plenty of risk in the stock market, even over longer periods like ten or fifteen years.

In the end, comparing rates between your mortgage and possible investment vehicles is helpful, but not conclusive.

Why Pay Off Your Mortgage Early

In light of the above, it does make sense to pay off the mortgage early in some cases. Recently I was helping a friend who lost her spouse. The decision she needs to make is whether to use insurance proceeds to pay off the mortgage. If she chooses not to pay off the mortgage, she’ll have trouble handling the mortgage payment each month. In addition, she’s not comfortable with the idea of losing money in the stock market, even with a solid investment plan. Finally, she believes she can meet her financial goals, most notably retirement in 7 to ten years if she pays off her mortgage. Under those circumstances, paying off the mortgage makes perfect sense.

My wife and I have also recently discussed this issue. She’s very much in favor of paying off the mortgage early. For her, it’s a feeling of security. This raises another important issue–what if a husband and wife don’t agree on the approach to take? It happens.

In our case, we quickly found common ground. We’ll use half of our extra money each month to put toward the mortgage, and the other have will go toward investments. This solution underscores an important part of personal finance–it’s rarely all or nothing.

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Author Bio

Total Articles: 1082
Rob founded the Dough Roller in 2007. A litigation attorney in the securities industry, he lives in Northern Virginia with his wife, their two teenagers, and the family mascot, a shih tzu named Sophie.

Article comments


Hi Rob – To your last point about you and your wife – “We’ll use half of our extra money each month to put toward the mortgage, and the other have will go toward investments.” I think you’re making a case for diversification here, and that’s another reason to not payoff your mortgage early.

As you also said, it’s rarely all or nothing. If you put all of your extra cash into paying off the mortgage early, you may risk having too much of your capital tied up in a single asset (the house). That’s never a sound strategy.

While it may sound almost virtuous to payoff your house as soon as possible, you also need to have investments that are totally unrelated to the house. It gets back to Investing 101.

Balance is always the key when it comes to finances.

Mihir says:

I pay an extra 1/12th payment each month. In effect, that means that I make an extra payment towards the principal each month. This will help me pay off my loan a few years early without breaking my investment plans in any noticeable way.

Dave says:

Enjoy reading your blog, Rob.

I paid off both of my properties about 2 years ago. Primary driver for me was my retirement and the desire to have little debt with my newfound, reduced income.

Oddly, I followed the advice above as I was paying down debt. I first targeted the higher interest debt, build up a cash reserve, maxed out my 401(k) contributions, and then paid off the mortgages.

It’s a very good feeling not having large debt payments. My cash flow with my retirement income sources covers all our expenses with money left over for fun stuff.

Rob Berger says:

Dave, congrats. We should all follow in your footsteps!

Brian Smith says:


Another great podcast~
Keep up the great work!!

John says:


One small correction to your recent podcast. You mention that PMI is not deductible as an itemized deduction, but there are some cases where it is:


Rob Berger says:

John, thanks for the clarification.

John H says:

It’s curious to me that an article that ends with the phrase “it’s rarely all or nothing” trumpets the words “never” and “must” in its title. Kind of a cheap tactic to catch potential readers’ eyes.

It’s also interesting to me how, after a strong market run, the lessons of the 2000s have been completely forgotten by some. Yes, on paper, the stock market will return more over time, on average, than pre-paying the mortgage. But analyses such as yours always leave out the component of risk. They treat the stock market return as a given, when it’s anything but. (And they also treat those who choose to pre-pay as irrational, overly emotional/sentimental tubs of goo.)

Rewind the clock to 1/1/2000, then tell me whether you would rather be the guy who paid down his mortgage, or the guy who took out the largest mortgage he could so he could invest it. A good investing strategy is one that works in all seasons, not simply the majority of them.

This was my first stop at your blog, and I suspect it’ll be the last one. Thanks for writing though.

Rob Berger says:

John, thanks for the comment. Stock market crashes shouldn’t change our strategy. The fact that the market crashed in 2000, 2008, or 1987, or 1929 doesn’t change the analysis. Sure you can focus on one year or a couple of years to evaluate the best approach. But I look at the long term. And over the long term, the market will return greater than 3% (my after-tax mortgage rate). As I walk through in the article, there’s much more to the analysis than that. But the tech crash of 2000 surely doesn’t change my analysis.

HaveFaith says:

Exactly!!! Market crashes negatively affect those who pull out, positively those that enter and absolutely nothing to those who stay, usually!!!

N Rod says:

Only if your financial situation allows you to keep your fund in the market long enough for the funds to grow back. You need to consider time as part of your analysis.

J. Butler says:

Paying down a mortgage always makes sense, and you get to decide how much to pay down and how often to pay more. Keep in mind the spouse that may be left with children and a mortgage. !

john says:

Hi Rob
I have extra cash in my account. Should I pay off my rental property mortgage now? My rate is 4.5% fix.

george says:

nooo! let the tenant pay your mortgage keep your money you work for it right you should get a 40 year mortgage if you can

Alison says:

I think paying off the rental property makes sense. You will continue to receive income from the rents going towards your savings.

Rt says:

Unless they destroy your house or stop paying rent. Now a days the eviction process takes forever

Omar says:

Finally. An article that considers that the person looking to pay off the mortgage is actually investing %15 or %20 of their income prior to getting to this point. Risk is so underestimated in the debate about paying off the mortgage. Great article.

Isaac says:

Rob, I really enjoy your podcast and blog. This article contains lots of excellent advice. I have a 30 year from fixed VA loan at 3.25% and I only make the minimum monthly payment. My gross savings rate is a little over 50%. I max out the Roth TSP plus 5% employer match, and both my and my wife’s Roth IRA. Our overall target asset allocation is 80/20. In our taxable account with Vanguard, we go 50/50. Going heavyweight in bonds is our compromise solution since we are not paying down the mortgage early. Our effective federal income tax rate is 0% since I spend several months per year in combat zones, and we live in a state with no income tax. We buy BND (Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF), current 3.34% 30-day yield. We feel that this strategy mitigates a lot of risk and preserves liquidity. Thanks for all you do- keep up the great work!

Todd says:

First thank you to you and all who serve.
Really great job. fyi, you may look into asset allocation strategies where it may be better to have bonds in a nontaxable account and all/or part of equities in the taxable


John says:

Cash Is King you will never own your house, dont pay the property taxes, don’t pay home insurance, get sued, divorce, hurricane, tornado all can take your paid off house. If you need to run and leave that city or county, you can’t take the house with you. But, you can take the money and start a new better life anywhere else. Your neighborhood might change into a undesirable area. Keep your money and use the house until you’re tired. Eventually kids will move out, spouse may die or get a divorce. Do you really want live alone in that paid off house with nostalgia?

Eve says:

Wow! This is very interesting. I agree 100% because I have the same point of view.

Lilah says:

wow John since you put it that way. I won’t worry so much about paying down my mortgage! thanks!

WALTER says:

Good article. I am paying an additional few hundred dollars toward principal every month so that my home (purchased in 2016) is paid off by the time I turn 65. That amount isn’t a material opportunity cost with respect to my investments, and cash flow after retirement is probably the most important consideration – more so than investment returns.